Core tips: to extend the life of the storage battery of engineering machinery several effective methods: the use of batteries in the use of failures, mostly due to improper maintenance and use. The external faults of the battery include cracks in the shell and cover, dry cracks in the seal, the loosening and corrosion of pole piles, etc.
1. Damage form of battery
Most of the failures in battery operation are caused by improper maintenance and use. The external faults of the battery include the shell and cover crack, the sealing glue dry crack, the pole pile loosening and corrosion, etc. the internal faults include the plate vulcanization, the self discharge, the internal short circuit, the exfoliation of the active material, the plate arch and so on.
When used, it is necessary to prevent excessive discharge and overcharge. Excessive discharge will cause the plate to be vulcanized and the active material on the plate forms a white PbSO4 crystal that can't participate in the chemical reaction. This is one of the reasons for the early damage of the battery. At the same time, excessive discharge caused by large current, such as too much starting machine, too long discharge time of large current, can not be recharged in time. It causes the damage of the arch and baffle of the plate and causes the battery to be in a bad state. When the excess charge is charged, electricity can electrolysis water to produce hydrogen and oxygen, resulting in a certain pressure on the pore of the plate.
Two. Factors affecting the capacity of battery
The factors that affect the capacity of the battery include the structure of the plate, the size of the discharge current, the temperature of the electrolyte and the density of the electrolyte, among which the influence of charge, discharge current and temperature is the most. If the charge and discharge current are too large, the active material on the plate will be changed on the surface and the capacity is reduced much, and the decrease of the temperature will result in the poor electrolyte fluidity, the contraction of the polar plate, the slow chemical change and the increase of the battery internal resistance. If the temperature drops by 1 C at 30 C, the capacity will decrease by about 1%, and the internal resistance will also increase. Therefore, in the cold area, the air temperature is below -20 C and the capacity has decreased to 60%, the internal resistance is increased, the engine often can not start up, often feel that the battery power is insufficient. Overdischarge is prone to occur in severe cold regions, but excessive charges occur frequently in temperate regions. Therefore, in order to use the battery properly, we must grasp its usage rule according to the local climatic conditions and the actual situation. The battery charge must be selected according to the different conditions and the proper use of the charging equipment, in order to improve the capacity of the battery and prolong the service life of the battery.
Three. The common charging method of battery
The commonly used charging methods are fixed current charging, constant voltage charging and pulse fast charging. The battery in use often has the phenomenon of insufficient charging. It is necessary to replenish the battery regularly. In order to maintain the battery's capacity and prolong its life, it needs to be recharged and recycled. In order to eliminate the vulcanization failure of the plate, it needs to be de sulfurized and charged. The first stage charging current of the initial charge is 1/15 of its rated capacity; the second stage charging current is halved. The first charge current of the supplementary charging is 1/10 of its rated capacity, and the second stage is reduced to half. The characteristic of the plentiful battery of the lead battery is that the end voltage rises to the maximum value of about 2.7V, and no longer increases in the 2h-3h; a large number of bubbles are produced in the battery and the electrolyte is boiling.
Four. The correct use and maintenance of the battery
The correct use and maintenance of the contents of the battery include:
1. Analyze the power consumption of the machinery and control the terminal voltage of the generator within the prescribed limits. For example, the mechanical charging time in the daytime is long and the discharge time is short, and the charging current should be reduced properly to prevent excessive charging. The mechanical and frequent starting vehicles at night should prevent excessive discharge. The charging current should be properly adjusted and sufficient electricity should be used for the next use.
2. Pay attention to the temperature conditions of mechanical or vehicle work. In cold areas, we must pay attention to the insulation of the battery, choose the density of the electrolyte reasonably, and keep it in a sufficient state of electricity. The added distilled water should be carried out during charging to prevent icing. Before starting the engine, the engine should be preheated and the starting machine should be used correctly. The start time should not exceed 5S, and the interval of 15S should be started again, and two consecutive starts will not be started. After the failure, it should be restarted again.
3, to strengthen the maintenance of the battery. If it is used or not maintained, plus the poor working conditions of the battery, the consequence is obvious.
The maintenance of the battery includes:
1. Keep the external cleanliness of the battery. Cleaning up the dirt and overflow electrolyte on the battery cover often helps to prevent self discharge.
Second, check the hole on the battery cover regularly to keep it smooth; if the hole is blocked, the gas will burst the battery.
3. The battery installation requirements are reliable. When the machine is bumping on the uneven road, the battery must not move up and down in the installation seat, and the bottom of the battery should be cushions on the rubber shock resistance, so as to avoid the shock of the shell, the loosening of the connection head and the damage of the inner plate. In addition to checking the installation firmly, we should also pay attention to removing the oxide and sulfate produced by the battery clip. Vaseline can be used to clean the rust after smearing, so as to prevent it from being rusted again. Always check the conductor connector to ensure its reliable contact.
The level of the liquid level of the electrolyte is often checked. The electrolyte in the battery will be reduced with the decomposition and natural evaporation of the battery. After the plate is exposed, the exposed part will be quickly vulcanized, so that the capacity of the battery becomes smaller. Even if the electrolyte is added, it will be submerged and the vulcanized part of the plate can not be restored to the original. Therefore, the liquid level in the battery should be checked in time and the distilled water or electrolyte should be added at the right time. Usually check once a week in the summer and two weeks in winter. Using the semitransparent plastic as the shell of the battery, the inner level can be seen outside the shell, and there are two lines on the outer shell. The height of the liquid surface is only between the two lines. The battery with black plastic is used as the shell, and the liquid cover should be unscrewed, the height of the liquid surface is observed with the eye, and a small glass tube can be inserted into the battery. The electrolyte is checked with the finger and the electrolyte is taken out. Under normal circumstances, the electrolyte surface height should be higher than the plate 10-15mm. It should be added with distilled water when the liquid level is too low. If electrolyte is poured or spilled, electrolyte should be added. It should be noted that ordinary water such as tap water, river water and well water can not be added as distilled water.
The relative density of the electrolyte is often checked. If there is a lot of water shortage, we should think of overcharging. If we find that the density is too low, we should consider whether excessive discharge should be done.
In winter, the storage battery should be kept warm and the frost crack should be prevented, so that the service life of the battery can be prolonged.